In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Two Essential Oils and Eugenol from Flower Buds of Eugenia caryophyllata
Natalija Atanasova-Pancevska1, *, Jane Bogdanov2, Dzoko Kungulovski1
1 Department of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
2 Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
Aromatic plants and their essential oils have been used as food complements and medicine since the ancient times. Most of the researches today are pointed towards finding natural plant components which will have an antimicrobial action without having contraindications in human organism. Cloves, the dried aromatic flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata, are widely used and known for their antimicrobial components.
The antimicrobial action of clove essential oils was tested against several microorganisms.
Freshly isolated (hydrodistilled and dried) essential oil, and commercial essential oil were used and compared to pure eugenol, the most active and most important component. The microorganisms used in the research are Gram positive bacteria (Bacilus pumilus NCTC 8241, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and molds (Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Aspergillus sojae). The microdilution test enabled determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of three samples used in the experiment against all of test microorganism.
It was found that the eugenol had the strongest effect against microorganisms, with the exception of E. coli, where the freshly isolated essential oil had the strongest bactericide effect. The commercial essential oil had the weakest action against all of test microorganisms. The chemical composition of all three samples was determined via GC-MS and preliminary connection between the methods of preparation and storage of essential oils and their antimicrobial properties was proposed.
Clove essential oil and eugenol possess broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity. So, they represent an alternative source of natural antimicrobial substances for use to prevent the growth of different bacteria, yeasts and molds.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia; Tel: +389 2 3249 628; Fax: +389 2 3228 141; E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com