Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.
Bentham OPEN follows the double-blind peer review procedure for submissions of all manuscripts to its journals.
All submitted articles are subjected to an extensive peer review in consultation with members of the journal’s editorial board and independent external referees (usually three reviewers). All manuscripts/chapters are assessed rapidly and the decision based on all the peer reviewers' comments, taken by the journal’s Editor-in-Chief, is then conveyed to the author(s).
Submissions from the Editor-in-Chief/Co-Editor/ Editorial Board Members will undergo independent peer review and will be submitted to another Editor for his decision on acceptance. For further details, please visit complete guidelines at: https://benthamscience.com/pages/peer-reviews
All efforts are made to expedite the peer review process for a timely publication.
Authors have the choice to publish a wide range of articles in a Bentham OPEN journal e.g., short communications, full-length research and review articles, systematic reviews, editorials, perspectives, letters to the editor, commentaries as well as supplements, conference proceedings and case studies.
All clinical investigations must be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. For all those manuscripts where the studies involve human participants, formal review and approval by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee are required.
For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the standards set forth in the eighth edition of “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” ( https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals_prepub.pdf published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.). Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For in vivo experiments, visit https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines
Authors must clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approval were obtained prior to initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below.
All experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) must comply with international guidelines. The manuscript must clearly include a declaration of compliance of field studies with relevant guidelines and/or relevant permissions or licenses obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Compliance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org) is recommended, in accordance with the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study for Bentham Publication as per the applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and other U.S. federal and state laws relating to confidentiality and security of personally distinguishable evidence, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 and member state implementing legislation, Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules, (together "Data Protection and Privacy Laws").
It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that:
Editors may request the authors to provide documentation for a formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee, responsible for any oversight of the study. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Anonymous images, that do not identify the individual directly or indirectly, such as through any identifying marks or text, do not require formal consent, for example, x-rays, ultrasound images, pathology slides or laparoscopic images.
The editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to some misunderstanding may seek an explanation for the decision in the form of an appeal. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The editor-in-chief and other relevant editors will consider the appeal and their decision will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed, even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.
Authors who intend to make a complaint should consult the editor-in-chief of the concerned journal. Complaints to the publisher may be emailed at firstname.lastname@example.org
Plagiarism means copying or paraphrasing another writer’s content, be it a text, a result or an observation, and stating it as one’s own, without citing a reference to the original source. Therefore, authors should acknowledge and cite references to the work of other scientists in their manuscripts. The author should ensure that all the sources are authentic and that there is no discrepancy in the content of the manuscript.
Bentham OPEN is vigilant in checking and identifying the primary sources of the data within the content by using the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similarity of text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software verifies the content against a database of periodicals, materials on the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. The software generates a similarity report in percentage that matches the article in process and the published material. This similarity is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. The generated report comprises the overall percentage of the content reused.
The study of an author has to be original. If there are credible sources of the content referred to in the manuscript, the author needs to cite all of them. Authors are advised to use iThenticate before submitting a manuscript to ensure that there are no instances of plagiarism. Authors are required to provide proper consent from the individuals and contributions of other authors should be acknowledged.
Bentham OPEN has different editorial policies for authors who have more than one publication. Following those policies, the authors need to specify the sources of the submission in their recent work. For further details, please visit the following link of Editorial Policies for Concurrent Publication/Simultaneous Submission at https://benthamopen.com/editorial-policies.php
Bentham OPEN strictly follows COPE guidelines to detect plagiarism. For clearer insight, authors may refer to the flowcharts provided by COPE by clicking here or visiting the COPE website.
To secure the scholarly integrity of every article, Bentham OPEN publishes post-publication notices. The authors of the published articles, or those who have submitted the manuscripts with false information, such as fabricated supporting data or images, may incur sanctions, and their papers will be retracted. For further details, please visit the complete guidelines at: https://opendentistryjournal.com/Fabricating-and-stating-false-information.php
Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.
Bentham OPEN (Licensor) grants the author(s) a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual license to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:
A preprint is an early version of an article that has not yet been accepted for publication in a journal. However, all preprint articles submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted elsewhere for publication (please check this sentence, I have made a connection between the top and later sentence, otherwise they were not making sense). These preprints are usually deposited on the author's own web page in an institutional repository, or on a preprint server. However, they are not considered ahead of print or early-access publications.
Preprint archiving on any recognized, non-profit preprint server is entirely supported and encouraged by Bentham OPEN. Preprints deposited in designated preprint repositories at the same time as, or before, submission to a journal are not considered as prior, citable publications by the Bentham OPEN Journals.
Authors grant Bentham OPEN (licensor) the right to retain all revenue from commercial sales of the author's published article in a Bentham OPEN journal.
Bentham OPEN offers affordable article processing fees, ranking amongst the lowest as compared to those of other open access journal publishers. An article-processing fee payable by the author/ author's institution applies to each accepted article, to cover the costs incurred by Open Access publication. Members of Bentham OPEN are entitled to discounted article processing fees.
Bentham OPEN is committed to disseminating research and scholarly publications as widely as possible. In this respect, it supports the principle that 'the results of research that have been publicly funded should be freely accessible in the public domain’ and therefore it encourages researchers to make their research available through open access (OA).
Open-access publishing is not free of cost. To facilitate open access, Bentham OPEN journals partly defray the expenses of peer review, journal production, and online hosting and archiving from authors and their research sponsors by charging a publication fee for each article they publish. The fees vary by journal. The publication fee for each article published in this journal is US $1005.
The following special discounts are offered to authors and editorial board members:
Authors and readers are encouraged to notify the editor-in-chief if they discover errors in published content, authors’ names and affiliations or if they have concerns over the legitimacy of a publication. In such cases, Bentham OPEN will publish an erratum or a corrigendum, in consultation with the editor-in-chief and authors of the article to, replace or retract the article.
Articles in press (articles that have been accepted for publication or published as E-pub ahead of schedule but which have not been formally published with volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are determined to violate the publishing ethics guidelines, such as multiple submissions, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like, may be “withdrawn” from the journal. Withdrawal means that the files of the article are removed and replaced with a PDF, stating that the article has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with the editorial policies of Bentham OPEN.
If published manuscripts with the information of volume / issue / page number, are found to violate professional ethical codes in their content, such as plagiarism, excess similarity with some other article, fraudulent use of data, etc., then such manuscripts are retracted. Any decision to issue a retraction notice for an article will be taken in accordance with the COPE guidelines available at: https://publicationethics.org/files/retraction-guidelines-cope.pdf.
Concurrent publication/Simultaneous submission It is a condition for manuscript publication that manuscripts submitted to the Bentham journals have not been previously published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered.
Abstracts and posters of conferences, results presented at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings), results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in the form of tables and text to describe data/information, where this is not easily presented in tabular form) are not considered prior to publication.
Authors who wish to publish translations of the articles that have been published elsewhere should ensure that they have appropriate permission(s), clearly indicating that the material has been translated and re-published., along with the original source of the material. The editor-in-chief may request copies of related publications to ensure any overlap and possible redundancy.
Responsibility for the content published by Bentham OPEN in any of its journals, including any opinions expressed therein, rests exclusively with the author(s) of that content. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Bentham OPEN (on behalf of its employees and editorial board members) disclaims the responsibility for any and all injury and/or damage, financial or otherwise, to persons or property, resulting directly or indirectly from any ideas, methods, instructions or products (including errors in the same) referred to the content of any of Bentham OPEN journals. Any dispute arising, including any claim, shall be governed exclusively by the laws of the United Arab Emirates, as applied in Sharjah.