Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 2213-9885 ― Volume 12, 2018
REVIEW ARTICLE

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Causes, Mechanism of Progression and Biomarkers



Amit Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar, Abhay K. Pandey*
Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India

Abstract

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours in the world. It is a heterogeneous group of a tumour that vary in risk factor and genetic and epigenetic alteration event. Mortality due to HCC in last fifteen years has increased. Multiple factors including viruses, chemicals, and inborn and acquired metabolic diseases are responsible for its development. HCC is closely associated with hepatitis B virus, and at least in some regions of the world with hepatitis C virus. Liver injury caused by viral factor affects many cellular processes such as cell signalling, apoptosis, transcription, DNA repair which in turn induce important effects on cell survival, growth, transformation and maintenance. Molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis may vary depending on different factors and this is probably why a large set of mechanisms have been associated with these tumours. Various biomarkers including α-fetoprotein, des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, glypican-3, golgi protein-73, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, circulating miRNAs and altered DNA methylation pattern have shown diagnostic significance. This review article covers up key molecular pathway alterations, biomarkers for diagnosis of HCC, anti-HCC drugs and relevance of key molecule/pathway/receptor as a drug target.

Keywords: HCC, HBV, Hepatocarcinogenesis, Apoptosis, Biomarkers, MiRNA.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 9
Last Page: 26
Publisher Id: CCGTM-12-9
DOI: 10.2174/2213988501812010009

Article History:

Received Date: 11/04/2018
Revision Received Date: 15/05/2018
Acceptance Date: 20/05/2018
Electronic publication date: 29/06/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Singh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India; Tel: +91 98395 21138; E-mail: akpandey23@rediffmail.com


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