The Open AIDS Journal

ISSN: 1874-6136 ― Volume 14, 2020

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities Among Clinically Stable HIV Patients on Long-Term ARV Therapy in Five Ambulatory Clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru

Jose A Hidalgo1, 5, *, Alberto Florez2, Cecilia Agurto3, Yvett Pinedo4, Rosemarie Ayarza5, Lourdes Rodriguez6, Alberto La Rosa6, Raul Gutierrez6
1 Almenara Hospital, Lima, Peru
2 Grau Hospital, Lima, Peru
3 Sabogal Hospital, Callao, Peru
4 Loayza Hospital, Lima, Peru
5 Vía Libre HIV Clinic, Lima, Lima
6 MSD Peru Medical Affairs, Lima, Peru



There is scarcity of data about the prevalence of non-AIDS defining comorbidities among stable HIV-infected patients in Peru.


We aimed to describe the most frequent cardiometabolic comorbidities found among ambulatory adults on ARV in Peru.


A review of records for patients attending regular visits at 5 clinics in Lima-Callao in January-February 2016 is presented. Patients were adults on ARV for >6 months, with no recent AIDS-defining condition.


Three hundred and five medical charts were reviewed. Most patients were male (73.1%, n=223) with a mean age of 46.0 years. Mean time from HIV diagnosis was 9.41 yrs. and mean duration of ARV was 7.78 yrs. Most patients were on an NNRTI-based first line regimen (76.4%, n=233), and 12.1% (n=37) were on rescue regimens. Median CD4 count was 614.2 cells/µL and the proportion of patients with viral load <40 c/mL was 90.8% (n=277). Most frequent metabolic diagnoses were dyslipidemia (51.5%, n=157), obesity (11.1%, n=34), and diabetes mellitus (7.2%, n=22). Hypertension was diagnosed in 8.9% (n=27). Other diagnoses of cardiovascular disease were documented in 3.3% (n=10). Pharmacologic treatment was prescribed in 91.3% of patients with diabetes or hypertension, but in only 29.3% of patients with dyslipidemia.


A high proportion of metabolic comorbidities was found, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent, followed by obesity and diabetes. In contrast, cardiovascular disease was documented less frequently. Medical treatment was started for only a third of dyslipidemia patients. HIV care policies need to consider proper management of chronic comorbidities to optimize long-term outcomes.

Keywords: Metabolic, Cardiovascular comorbidities, HIV patients, ARV therapy, Ambulatory clinics, Lima-Callao.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 126
Last Page: 135
Publisher Id: TOAIDJ-12-126
DOI: 10.2174/1874613601812010126

Article History:

Received Date: 21/6/2018
Revision Received Date: 17/08/2018
Acceptance Date: 18/8/2018
Electronic publication date: 17/10/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Hidalgo et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Paraguay 478, Lima 15001, Peru, Tel: +51 989096897; E-mail address:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Publishing with Bentham Open was a great experience. The timeliness and communication were outstanding. I am hopeful that I will have the opportunity to publish with Bentham Open again in the future."

Dr. Daniel B. Chastain
Pharm.D., AAHIVP, Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Infectious Diseases, Phoebe Health, USA

SCImago Journal Ranking

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open