The purpose of this study is to investigate frame negotiation and construction through a pragmatic analysis of
the speech act refusal. This act serves as a marker of conflicting frames in Problem-Solving-Service Call (PSSC) interactions
between native speakers of English and non-native speakers of English (NNS). Sixteen authentic PSSCs were recorded
by eight NNS (Chinese) when they were talking to customer service representatives. A pragmatic analysis of moment-
by-moment encounters of their interactions will, first, demonstrate how refusal acts trigger conflicting frames; second,
how conflicting frames are further marked by structured linguistic items to indicate individuals’ presuppositions, and
third how conflicting frames are redefined through a co-constructing process. Instructional implications are provided to
suggest frame knowledge building in second language learning activities.