We used a non-linguistic gender attribution task to determine how French and Spanish grammatical gender affects
bilinguals’ conceptual gender. French-English and Spanish-English bilingual, as well as English monolingual adults
were asked to assign a male or female voice to 32 color drawings depicting people, animals, and common objects. French-
English and Spanish-English bilinguals classified items according to French and Spanish grammatical gender respectively.
This effect was replicated for French-English bilinguals on those items whose grammatical gender was opposite in
French and Spanish. Unexpectedly, Spanish gender similarly affected classifications by Spanish-English and English-
Spanish bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals. We discuss how grammatical gender, possible covariates, and the order
of L1 and L2 acquisition, affect conceptual gender as well as implications for decision making.