The Open Allergy Journal


ISSN: 1874-8384 ― Volume 11, 2020

Association Between Endoscopic, Radiologic and Patient-reported Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

A. Luukkainen1, 2, J. Numminen3, M. Rautiainen3, A. Julkunen1, H. Huhtala4, J. Lampi5, 6, A. Markkola7, J. Myller8, A.K. Andiappan9, D.Y. Wang2, S. Toppila-Salmi1, 10, *
1 Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2 Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore 119228, Singapore
3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tampere University Hospital and Tampere University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Tampere, Finland
4 Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
5 Living Environment and Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
6 Environment Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland
7 Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
8 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland
9 Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore
10 Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland



Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps (CRSsNP) and with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP) affect 10% and 1-4% of the general population respectively. Early detection and treatment of CRSwNP might prevent recalcitrant disease forms. The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate association between endoscopic, radiologic, and self-reported CRSwNP, and a family history in defining CRSwNP.


This study involved 73 CRS patients aged 18 years or over undergoing CRS-surgical consultation at the Tampere University Hospital. Data of sinus Computed Tomography (CT) scans and nasal endoscopy was obtained from patient records. Sixty controls ±allergic rhinitis underwent clinical examination. All subjects filled a questionnaire. Associations were analyzed by Chi square and adjusted regression models. The predictive performance of various parameters was assessed using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC).


A total of 33% of CRSwNP patients reported not having Nasal Polyps (NPs), while 18% of CRSsNP patients reported having NPs (p < 0.001). Radiologic Nasal Polyp (NP) score differentiated CRSwNP from CRSsNP with an AUROC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-1.00). The AUROC value for Lund-Mackay (LM) score was 0.84 (0.75-0.94). Positive family history of NP did not differ significantly between CRS and control groups. Family history of allergy or asthma was given with certainty, whereas CRS patients had uncertainty of reporting NPs in family compared to controls (adjusted OR=6.02, 95% CI 1.98-18.30, p = 0.002).


Our findings suggest that in situations where nasal endoscopy cannot be performed, early detection of CRSwNP could result from information obtained from sinus CT scans and patients, in comparison to family history which has lower predictive value. However validation studies with larger sample sizes are still needed.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis, Asthma, Nasal polyps, Rhinosinusitis, Nasal endoscopy, CT scan.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 10
First Page: 1
Last Page: 8
Publisher Id: TOALLJ-10-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874838401910010001

Article History:

Received Date: 10/01/2019
Revision Received Date: 19/03/2019
Acceptance Date: 01/04/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Luukkainen et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, PO BOX 160 (Meilahdentie 2), 00029 Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland; Tel: +358-9-4711;
Fax: +358-9-19125155, E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2023 Bentham Open