Many strategies are currently used by researchers and pharmaceutical companies to search for new drugs for
medical and pharmaceutical purposes. The choice of a strategy depends primarily on the costs involved, team background
in a given area, and/or promising results pointed at certain approaches. Ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological studies are
proving to be powerful tools in the search for new drugs. However, despite being scientifically recognized claimed
approaches, it is necessary to recognize that the relationship among people, their traditions, and the use of natural
resources for medical purposes can be quite complex. In this opinion article, our intention is to show the implications of
some findings of our research group that may be relevant to the search for new drugs in semi-arid regions.