Cold Winter Over North America: The Influence of the East Atlantic (EA) and the Tropical/Northern Hemisphere (TNH) Teleconnection Patterns
Masayo Ogi1, *, Søren Rysgaard1, 2, 3, David G. Barber1
1Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
2Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
3Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland
Anomalous cold temperatures and strong cyclonic circulation were observed during winter 2013/14 over North America. In this article, we propose for the first time that positive East Atlantic (EA) and positive Tropical/Northern Hemisphere (TNH) patterns were dominant in the winter of 2013/14. The values of the EA and TNH indices for winter 2013/14 were the highest and the second highest for the period of record 1951-2014, respectively. The combined EA and TNH pattern is similar to the corresponding atmospheric circulation observed in the winter of 2013/14. The regression patterns of air temperatures on the EA and TNH index show negative anomalies over North America and the North Atlantic Ocean and positive anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean and the mid-latitude Atlantic Ocean. The regression pattern is similar to air temperature anomalies in winter 2013/14. In addition, the combined EA and TNH pattern correlates with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the North Pacific and North Atlantic that are similar to the winter SST anomalies in winter 2013/14. The EA and TNH teleconnection patterns have contributed to the anomalous atmospheric circulation associated with the extreme cold winter over North America in 2013/14.
Keywords: Cold Winter in 2013/14, East Atlantic Pattern, Tropical/Northern Hemisphere Pattern, Sea Surface Temperature.
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Address correspondence to this author at the Centre for Earth Observation Science, 530 Wallace Building, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 Canada, Tel: (204) 474-9059; Fax: (204) 272-1532, E-mail: Masayo.Ogi@umanitoba.ca