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This paper investigates the carbon monoxide (CO) doses received while commuting by different modes (car,
bus, train, motorcycle, bicycle and running), taking into account the commute time as well as the level of physical activity
required. While the participants were constrained to travel at specific peak traffic times and between designated start and
end points, they were free to choose a route appropriate for their mode of transport.
The results of this study suggest that the lowest exposures (concentrations of pollutants) are experienced by train
commuters, largely a reflection of the routes being removed from any significant road traffic. Motorcyclists experienced
significantly higher average concentrations as a result of high-concentration and very-short-duration peaks not seen in the
traces of car and bus commuters travelling on the same road. Travel by bus along a dedicated busway was also found to be
effective in reducing commuter air pollution exposure compared to travel by car on a congested stretch of motorway.
The average concentrations to which cyclists and runners were exposed were found to be not significantly different for
those travelling by car or bus (except when on dedicated pedestrian/cycleways). However, when the increased physical
activity that is required is taken into account (leading to higher volumes of air breathed) along with the increased
commuting time (especially in the case of runners), the air pollution doses (as estimated by the product of the
concentration, commute time and breathing factor) were found to be significantly higher than for the motorised modes.
The results suggest that separate pedestrian/cycleways go some way towards providing healthier options for cyclists and