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The paper compares the life-time material effectiveness of five exterior walls used to build residential buildings.
Effectiveness was measured by the MIPS method. The five exterior walls compared were: 1) a precast concrete wall,
2) a brick and concrete wall, 3) a brick and timber wall, 4) a timber wall, and 5) a straw wall. Expected service life of the
exterior wall was 100 years. The precast concrete wall will consume about twice as much material over its 100-year
lifespan as a wooden wall. The length of the service life of a wall affects the material effectiveness of concrete and brick