The Open Biochemistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-091X ― Volume 14, 2020

Socioeconomic Deprivation as Measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation and Its Association with Low Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in Women

Adrian Heald1, 2, *, Ian Laing1, David J. McLernon3, Rachelle Donn2, Andrew J. Hartland5, Anthony A. Fryer4, Mark Livingston5
1 Department of Medicine, Leighton Hospital, Crewe, United Kingdom
2 School of Medicine and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
3 Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Keele University School of Medicine, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
5 Department of Blood Sciences, Walsall Manor Hospital, Walsall, United Kingdom



Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a marker of insulin resistance. Given established links between BMI and socioeconomic disadvantage, we investigated how SHBG varies by index of multiple deprivation (IMD).

Research Design and Methods:

Using laboratory data from a Midlands UK population of mixed ethnicity, we examined the relation between blood concentrations of SHBG and IMD in 1160 women aged between 17 and 71 years. Women with a serum SHBG >250 nmol/L were excluded.


Mean age was 28.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 28.2–29.1) years. 48.2% of women were of Caucasian origin, 15.5% of Southern Asian ethnicity and 2.6% were of African or other origin (33.7% were of unknown origin).

SHBG increased with age (Spearman’s ρ=0.195; p<0.001). A higher proportion of women of South Asian origin versus other ethnic groups had an SHBG <30 nmol/L (OR 1.93 (95% CI 1.37–2.71)).

SHBG level was lower in individuals with greater socioeconomic disadvantage as measured by IMD (Spearman's ρ= -0.09; p=0.004 for SHBG versus IMD).

In multivariate logistic regression, IMD women in the quartiles 2–5 (higher socioeconomic disadvantage) were more likely to have an SHBG <30 nmol/L (compatible with significant insulin resistance) versus quartile 1 (odds ratio (OR) 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–2.53), adjusted for age (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.95–0.98)) and ethnicity (for South Asian ethnicity OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.42–2.81) versus the rest).


Lower SHBG levels in women are associated with a higher level of socioeconomic disadvantage. Given the known association between lower SHBG and higher plasma glucose, our findings suggest a link between socioeconomic disadvantage and future risk of type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Sex hormone binding globulin, Index of multiple deprivation, Type 2 diabetes, Women, BMI, Ethnicity.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 1
Last Page: 7
Publisher Id: TOBIOCJ-11-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874091X01711010001

Article History:

Received Date: 24/07/2016
Revision Received Date: 11/12/2016
Acceptance Date: 28/12/2016
Electronic publication date: 13/03/2017
Collection year: 2017

© 2017 Heald et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Medicine and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; Tel: +44 1270 612353; Fax: +44 1270 613353; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"We have always had a fruitful cooperation and long-term experience of publishing with Bentham Open."

"A number of our original papers have appeared in its different journals, as the Bentham Open Publishers provides sufficient research in the field of science and technologies (belonging to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, biomedical industries etc). The staff of the Bentham Open always treat our papers very seriously and gently during the rutile paper reviewing process, so far we always felt their kindness and highly cooperative support. Today, Bentham Open is providing a great support to science and research, giving opportunities of high standard publishing as well as promoting and enhancing selected papers around the world through communication and exchange of global scientific education."

Kholmirzo T. Kholmurodov
Leading Scientist
FLNP (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics) JINR (Joint Institute of Nuclear Research) Moscow region, Russia

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open