This study investigates the mediating role of visual-verbal redundancy on the impact of three features, namely,
message sensation value (MSV), message cognition value (MCV), and smoking scenes, on the perceived effectiveness of
antismoking messages among young adults. Recent literature examining the effects of the three major message
characteristics presents contradictory results, which is argued to be affected by the factor of how ad structure and content
are organized. Using a within-subject experimental design, the mediation analyses indicate that the visual-verbal
redundancy mediates the relationship between message effectiveness and three message features. Theoretical and practical
implications are discussed.