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A number of approaches for integrating GIS and qualitative research have emerged in recent years. Despite
significant growth in public participation GIS (PPGIS) literature since the 1990s, little engagement by e-government
scholars is evident in the extensive scholarly PPGIS debates. To fill this void, recent trends in PPGIS adoption by local
governments are analyzed. Three waves of GIS are identified: desktop GIS, web GIS, and the Geospatial Web 2.0 platform.
Such technological advancements have progressively eased GIS accessibility from expert users to ordinary citizens,
accompanied by considerable growth in adopting PPGIS for traffic and transit, volunteered geographic information, and
customer relationship management. However, limited use of PPGIS for higher levels of participation such as decision
making is found. Barriers to PPGIS adoption for decision making seem less technological and more institutional.