Department of Landscape Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Sustainable development identifies the requirements for the environmental enhancements while preserving a balance among environmental factors. Sustainable integrated systems reinforced or promoted the persistence of the structural and operational components into the natural component.
The study aims to apply a modified ecological footprint model to assess how much the ecosystem functions were affected by the development of urban waterfronts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
A modified ecological footprint model has been applied to assess the outcomes obtained from the ecosystem functions of urban waterfronts.
The study revealed alteration or embedment of natural processes in all developed urban waterfronts; leading to loss of biodiversity, diminishment of site productivity, and increase of hidden costs regarding maintenance and replacement. It has positive performance in biodiversity enrichment, continuous productivity, maintenance and enhancement of natural physical and biological processes.
The sustainable designs for urban waterfronts should aiming for the enhancement of natural processes for the productivity of coastal areas.
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