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In generally, there is a phenomenon of “free rider” in the establishment of national oil reserves for different
countries, which means that they have the tendency of underestimating the strategic oil reserves. This paper attempts to
explain this phenomenon from the perspective of non-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of
strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The
results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own
suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice.