The measurement of cellular and sub cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in
living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. It answers to the need to detect exposure and to
assess effects of pollutants on biota. Biomarkers have recently become an integral component of environmental
monitoring programmes of marine environments in several countries as a supplement to the commonly used contaminant
monitoring. The review reports and analyzes new insights and perspectives in the biomarker approach, including its recent
application to the detection of the impact of biological pollution in marine environment.