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This study was designed to identify maternal characteristics associated with smoking during pregnancy and inappropriate
gestational weight gain. Data were collected retrospectively from records of 252 women enrolled in the Siouxland
WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) program in Sioux City, Iowa. Twenty-three percent of women reported smoking
during pregnancy. Forty-four percent of women gained more weight than recommended during pregnancy and 21 percent
gained less than recommended.
Maternal demographic characteristics were tested as predictors of inappropriate gestational weight gain and smoking using
logistic regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratios indicated that smoking was predicted by lower income, being unmarried,
white (non-Hispanic) ethnicity, and living with another smoker. Excess pregnancy weight gain was predicted by
white ethnicity, primigravid status, and being overweight (but not obese) before pregnancy. Risk of smoking and excess
weight gain was highest among women with multiple identified risk factors. Smoking and excess gestational weight gain
are both common in this low-income population but have different patterns of demographic risk.