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The genus Cryptococcus includes at least 37 different species, of which, two are important human pathogens:
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These fungi are opportunistic pathogens and etiologic agents of
cryptococcosis disease in humans and animals. A variety of virulence factors interfere with the establishment of
cryptococcal infection is usually acquired via inhalation of environmental basidiospores or desiccated yeasts.
Cryptococcosis has gained medical importance over the last decade due to the AIDS pandemic, and become an emerging
pathogen of immunocompetent individuals, especially in children. This disease in humans may involve every tissue,
including cutaneous and pulmonary sites, but the most serious manifestation is central nervous system involvement with
meningoencephalitis. In this review, we briefly described the taxonomy, the fungus biology, epidemiology and clinical
manifestations of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.