Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPNP), as a distinct tumor, often occurred in young female patients with both exocrine and endocrine differentiation. Our aim was to define the SPNP histogenesis and investigate the relationships between its histological origin and the sexual hormone receptors. 20 tumor samples were subjected to the analysis of immunohistologic staining patterns and presence of sex hormone receptors and other markers of SPNP. Immunohistological results indicated that the tumors were positive for alpha-1-antitrypsin (17 cases), vimentin (14 cases), synaptophysin (10 cases), chromaffin granule A (5 cases), cytokeratin and insulin (2 cases), glucagon and S-100 (1 case), progesterone-receptor protein (14 cases), estrogen receptor protein (1 case), pS2 (6 cases), but negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrin and androgen-receptor protein. SPNP is closely associated with the sex hormone receptor.