We examined 33,342 HF-free subjects, 32.7% women, included in Malmö Preventive Project. Mean inclusion
age was 49.7±7.4 years for women and 43.7±6.6 years for men.
During 21.7±4.3 years of average follow-up, 764 (2.3%) subjects were diagnosed with HF, 120 (1.1%) women
and 644 (2.9%) men. Following bootstrap analysis, the only strong independent predictor of HF among women was smoking.
Independent predictors of HF among men were diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood-glucose, smoking, family
history of myocardial infarction, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). During follow-up, 5,370 (16.1%) subjects
died, 978 (9.0%) women and 4,392 (19.6%) men. Among both women and men, strong independent predictors of combined
HF or all-cause death were high serum-triglycerides, fasting blood-glucose and estimated glomerular filtration rate,
smoking, and previous CVD. Among men, also underweight, high BMI, and systolic and diastolic BP, were strong independent
predictors of HF or death.
Although women and men shared many predictors of HF, there were several important differences between