Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a role as a coenzyme in numerous oxidation-reduction reactions
and mediates not only energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions, but also calcium homeostasis, aging, and cell
death. Moreover, extensive evidence attests to the great importance of the non-redox functions of NAD+ via NAD+-
consuming enzymes. Indeed, ADP-ribose transferases, cADP-ribose synthases and sirtuins emerge as NAD+ dependent
enzymes with potent regulatory function in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. They have been shown
to be involved in several neurological and cardiovascular disorders as well as in cancer and inflammation. In this review
we will summarize the current knowledge about function of NAD+-consuming enzymes in the regulation of the immune
system with particular emphasis on lung inflammatory disorders.