The development and use of an increasing number and variety of naturally, transgenic, induced mutant, and
genetically engineered immunodeficient mouse and mouse/human hybrids models have been imperative for understanding
the gene-driven cellular and molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological manifestations (phenotypes) of immune
disorders that are similar to mice and humans. Much more effort is needed to develop new system models to promote the
integration of thousands of genes and their variants that are likely to affect the outcome of microbial infections, immune
deficiency and autoimmunity. This article provides an update on characteristics and applications of most commonly used
inbred and new hybrid strains of naturally immunodeficiency, knockout and transgenic mouse models, and a short
discussion on how innovative technologies and databases presently available can be used for devising new models to
better understand the human immune system and diseases that affect it.
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