The Open Immunology Journal




ISSN: 1874-2262 ― Volume 10, 2020
REVIEW ARTICLE

Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis



Daina Pastare1, 2, *, Mohamed Ridha Bennour1, Elīna Polunosika2, Guntis Karelis2, 3
1 Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
2 Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Riga East University Hospital “Gailezers”, Riga, Latvia
3 Department of Infectology and Dermatology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia

Abstract

The search for an ideal multiple sclerosis biomarker with good diagnostic value, prognostic reference and an impact on clinical outcome has yet to be realized and is still ongoing. The aim of this review is to establish an overview of the frequent biomarkers for multiple sclerosis that exist to date. The review summarizes the results obtained from electronic databases, as well as thorough manual searches. In this review the sources and methods of biomarkers extraction are described; in addition to the description of each biomarker, determination of the prognostic, diagnostic, disease monitoring and treatment response values besides clinical impact they might possess. We divided the biomarkers into three categories according to the achievement method: laboratory markers, genetic-immunogenetic markers and imaging markers. We have found two biomarkers at the time being considered the gold standard for MS diagnostics. Unfortunately, there does not exist a single solitary marker being able to present reliable diagnostic value, prognostic value, high sensitivity and specificity as well as clinical impact. We need more studies to find the best biomarker for MS.

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Imaging, Genetic-immunogenetic, Biomarkers, Magnetic resonance, Laboratory.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 9
First Page: 1
Last Page: 13
Publisher Id: TOIJ-9-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874226201909010001

Article History:

Received Date: 01/04/2019
Revision Received Date: 23/10/2019
Acceptance Date: 25/10/2019
Electronic publication date: 20/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Pastare et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Riga Stradins University; Riga East University Hospital “Gailezers”, 2 Hipokrata Str., LV-1038 Riga, Latvia; Tel: +37167042531;
E-mail: daina.pastare@gmail.com




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