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Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are amazing materials that, after being severely deformed, can spontaneously return to their original shape upon heating. These materials possess a number of desirable properties, namely, high actuation power or force, large recovery strain, pseudoelasticity (or superelasticity), good chemical resistance and biocompatibility, etc. These unique features have attracted much attention toward the potential applications of SMAs for military, medical, safety, and robotics applications. More recently, thin film SMAs have been recognized as a new type of promising and high performance material for micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) and biological applications.