1 Hawassa Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Developing countries have a high burden of Tuberculosis (TB); although it is considered as a disease of the past in most developed countries. The end TB strategy was predicted to stabilize or drop the incidence of TB. However, the rising of the prevalence of immune-related diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are challenging the TB control strategy in high TB burden region. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of pulmonary tuberculosis in DM patients attending Adare Hospital, south Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 207 randomly selected diabetic patients at the Adare hospital. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used during the data collection from participants. Sputum concentration technique followed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used to examine pulmonary tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between various variables and pulmonary tuberculosis. Odds ratios and 95% CI were computed to determine the strength and presence of the association.
The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among diabetics was 5.3% [95% CI: (2.2, 8.4)]. Diabetic patients who were underweight [AOR = 9.94, 95% CI: (1.51-80.89)], had more than 10 years duration with DM [AOR = 7.03 95% CI: (1.357, 73.6)], Alcohol drinking habit [AOR = 12.49, 95% CI: (3.28, 77.94)], and history of contact with TB [AOR = 5.35, 95% CI: (1.1-39.12)] were the factors positively associated with pulmonary TB infection while being HIV seronegative had a negative association with pulmonary TB infection [AOR =0.074, 95% CI: (0.001-0.29)].
High proportion of pulmonary TB was observed in diabetic patients as compared to the national estimated prevalence of TB in the total population. Duration of patient with DM, being underweight, alcohol consumption habit, and contact history with TB were positively associated with pulmonary TB infection while being HIV seronegative had a negative association with the infection in diabetic patients.
Keywords: Associated factors, Diabetic mellitus, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Ethiopia, HIV seronegative.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; Tel: +251-91-783-7681; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org