The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020

Virological Quality of Urban Rivers and Hospitals Wastewaters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Tesfaye L. Bedada1, *, Teshome B. Eshete2, Samson G. Gebre1, Firehiwot A. Dera1, Waktole G. Sima1, Tigist Y. Negassi1, Rahel F. Maheder1, Shiferaw Teklu1, Kaleab Awoke1, Tatek K. Feto1, Kassu D. Tullu3
1Public Health Microbiology Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Gondar University, Gondar, Ethiopia, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Polluted rivers and hospital wastewater become a greater concern because of their public health and environmental hazards with high tendency to result in epidemics.

Methods and Materials:

The current study investigated 84 samples of Urban rivers and 30 samples of hospitals wastewaters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between February and April, 2017. The simultaneous detection of male-specific and somatic Coliphages from the samples was carried out using Escherichia coli CB390 as the host according to the single agar layer plaque assay at public health microbiology laboratory of Ethiopian Public Health Institute.


Of the total 114 samples tested, coliphages were detected in 44 (52.4%) and 3 (10%) samples of urban rivers and hospital waste waters, respect ively. Total coliphages enumerations ranged from <1pfu/100ml to 5.2×103pfu/100ml for urban rivers and <1pfu/100ml to 4.92×103pfu/100ml for hospitals wastewaters.


The detection of total coliphages in our study settings warrants the possibility that the pollution of urban rivers and hospital wastewaters may be a source for pathogenic viral infections. Unless coliphages, viral and fecal indicators are also examined in the waters by public health agencies, waterborne infections cause a major risk to public health.

Keywords: Coliphages, Virological, Hospital wastewater, Indicators, Fecal pollution, Agar.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 164
Last Page: 170
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-13-164
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801913010164

Article History:

Received Date: 23/02/2019
Revision Received Date: 15/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 22/05/2019
Print publication date: 30/06/2019

© 2019 Bedada et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Public Health Microbiology Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
Tel: 251912139197; Fax: 251 112758634; E-mail:

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