Immobilization of Microbes for Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Environments: A Mini Review
Zeynab Bayat1, Mehdi Hassanshahian1, *, Simone Cappello2
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Institute for Marine Environment Research (IAMC), CNR of Messine, Messina, Italy
Petroleum hydrocarbons are the most common environmental pollutants in the world and oil spills pose a great
hazard to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Oil pollution may arise either accidentally or operationally whenever oil is
produced, transported, stored and processed or used at sea or on land. Oil spills are a major menace to the environment as
they severely damage the surrounding ecosystems. To improve the survival and retention of the bioremediation agents in
the contaminated sites, bacterial cells must be immobilized. Immobilized cells are widely tested for a variety of applications.
There are many types of support and immobilization techniques that can be selected based on the sort of application.
In this review article, we have discussed the potential of immobilized microbial cells to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons.
In some studies, enhanced degradation with immobilized cells as compared to free living bacterial cells for the treatment
of oil contaminated areas have been shown. It was demonstrated that immobilized cell to be effective and is better, faster,
and can be occurred for a longer period
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biology, Faculty
of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran;
Tel: +989132906971; Fax: +9834322032; E-mail: