Dendritic spines are actin-rich protrusions that comprise the postsynaptic sites of synapses and receive the majority
of excitatory synaptic inputs in the central nervous system. These structures are central to cognitive processes, and
alterations in their number, size, and morphology are associated with many neurological disorders. Although the actin cytoskeleton
is thought to govern spine formation, morphology, and synaptic functions, we are only beginning to understand
how modulation of actin reorganization by actin-binding proteins (ABPs) contributes to the function of dendritic spines
and synapses. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the role of ABPs in regulating the formation, morphology,
motility, and plasticity of dendritic spines and synapses.