The Open Neuroendocrinology Journal


ISSN: 1876-5289 ― Volume 5, 2014

The Open Neuroendocrinology Journal, 2011, 4: 136-146

Zhongyu Yan, Andrea Hoffmann, Erin Kelly Kaiser , William C. Grunwald, Jr. , David R. Cool

Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, 240 Health Sciences Building, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435, USA.

Electronic publication date 30/December/2011
[DOI: 10.2174/1876528901104010136]

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Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a peptide hormone normally secreted from neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. In Familial Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant form of central diabetes insipidus, mutations of pro-vasopressin appear to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing a lack of biologically active AVP in the blood. To investigate the effect of pro-vasopressin mutations regarding intracellular functions of protein targeting and secretion, we created two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R, and G17V in frame with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and pro-vasopressin (VP) in frame with red fluorescent protein (VP-RFP). Fluorescence microscopy of Neuro-2a cells expressing these constructs revealed co-localization of VP-GFP and VP-RFP to punctate granules along the length and accumulating at the tips of neurites, characteristic of regulated secretory granules. In contrast, the two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R-GFP, and G17VGFP, were localized to a perinuclear region of the Neuro-2a cells characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. Coexpression of these mutants with VP-RFP showed VP-RFP was retained in the ER, co-localized with the mutants suggesting the formation of heterodimers as found in FNDI. Stimulated secretion experiments indicated that VP-GFP was secreted in an inducible manner whereas, G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP were retained to nearly 100% within the cells. Analysis by western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated an increased protein and mRNA expression for an ER resident molecular chaperone, BiP. Further analysis of ER-storage disease-associated proteins such as caspase 12 and CHOP showed an increase in these as well. The results suggest that G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP are retained in the ER of Neuro-2a cells, resulting in up-regulation of the molecular chaperone BiP, and activation of the ER-storage diseaseassociated caspase cascade system.

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