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The continuing efforts of investigators to achieve the best physical and clinical performances from PET
(positron emission tomography) and related hybrid cameras (PET/CT and PET/MRI) have led to remarkable technical
advances in hardware and software.
Time of flight (TOF) information measurement, which has been enabled thanks to the invention of fast, heavy crystals and
advances in fast light detection sensors and readout electronics, is used to obtain the PET images of better quality and
lesion-detection performance. Statistical reconstruction with resolution recovery and measurements of depth of interaction
(DOI) are the useful software- and hardware-wise approaches for enhancing the spatial resolution of reconstructed PET
images. These technical advances along with an expansive increase in the number of PET and PET/CT examinations
performed are facilitating the widespread use of PET scanners with specific detector structures and arrangements for
particular applications or organs. Combined multimodal imaging systems are also in the development mainstream of these
In this paper, these important technologies (TOF measurements, statistical reconstruction with resolution recovery, DOI
detectors, and application-specific PET cameras) that have made major contributions to advances in state-of-the-art
clinical and preclinical PET and hybrid systems are reviewed.