The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to the potential clinical utility for the delivery of chemotherapy in the context of nanoparticles. We will present traditional methods of hyperthermia and then focus on the clinical technique for using intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion for the treatment of peritoneal surface dissemination of colorectal cancer. Cellular mechanisms of hyperthermia as well as clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents are discussed. In the past decade carbon and metal nanoparticles have been explored for their ability to induce hyperthermia; however, many of these studies examine nanoparticles for tumor ablation at high temperatures. There are currently few studies that evaluate mild hyperthermia (below 43#x00B0;C) generated by nanoparticles to enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. The fundamentals for generation of hyperthermia from carbon and metal nanoparticles is discussed as are the limitations and benefits of specific nanoparticles with chemotherapeutic agents. This review will show that there is significant potential for the use of nanoparticles to induce hyperthermia and increase the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of colorectal cancer and other peritoneal disease.