The Open Nursing Journal




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RESEARCH ARTICLE

The Effect of the Smell of Breast Milk and Non-Nutritious Sucking on Pain Behavioral Response and to First-Time Hepatitis B Vaccine in Term Newborns



Elaheh Amiri Shadmehri1, Hamideh Yaghoobi2, 3, *, Mosa Sajjadi4, Mahdi Abbasian5
1 Department of Pediatrics, 9 Dey Educational Hospital, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran
2 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran
3 Health Sciences Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran
4 Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center and Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Nursing & Midwifery Faculty, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
5 Department of Pediatric Medicine, 9 Dey Educational Hospital, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

Abstract

Background:

The issue of Pain Management finds special significance in infants who are unable to verbally express pain. Studies have shown that the use of non-pharmacological pain control techniques can be effective in reducing neonatal pain. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of olfactory stimulation (with breast milk) and non-nutritive sucking (with a pacifier) on the physiological and behavioral responses in term neonates to the hepatitis B vaccine.

Methods:

In this clinical trial, which was done in 2015 at the Nohom-e Dey Hospital of Torbat Heidariyeh, 90 eligible infants were randomly selected and divided into two intervention and one control groups. In the breast-milk odor group (n = 30), the neonates were exposed to the mother's odor during vaccination. In the non-nutritive sucking group (n = 30), a standard soft pacifier was used, whereas, in the control group (n = 30), no intervention was carried out. Data collection tools included demographic information forms and the Neonatal Pain Response Scale. Data were edited and analyzed using SPSS 20 software.

Results:

This study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of neonatal behavioral responses after intervention in the three groups (p <0.05). The mean behavioral response was 0.73 lower in the breast-milk odor group than in the control group, and the mean behavioral response in the non-nutritive sucking group was 0.6 lower than that of the control group.

Conclusion:

The results of the study showed that both olfactory stimulations with breast milk and non-nutritive sucking have a positive impact on neonatal pain reduction, nearly equally.

Keywords: Breast milk odor, Non-nutritive sucking, Behavioral responses, Pain, Term baby, Physiological reactions.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 141
Last Page: 147
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-14-141
DOI: 10.2174/1874434602014010141

Article History:

Received Date: 15/1/2020
Revision Received Date: 5/6/2020
Acceptance Date: 15/6/2020
Electronic publication date: 30/07/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Amiri Shadmehri et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran; Tel: +989156561300; E-mail: hamideh.yaghoobi@yahoo.com



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