There is evidence that calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, proteins, antioxidants and w-3 fatty acids intakes are inversely associated with risk of osteoporosis and hip fractures. In the present study we examine the association of food consumption pattern and w-6/w-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet with hip joint fractures.
Sixty cases having fracture neck of femur and 95 control subjects above 50 years of age were included in this case control study. Dietary intakes were obtained by 3 days assessment of food intakes by questionnaires among patients with fractures(n=50) as well as among 95 control subjects. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaires. Radiological and clinical examination were conducted for the diagnosis of fractures. Cytokines were measured by chemoluminescence enzyme immunometric assay (immulite automated analyzer) kit (DPC Los Angelis, CA, USA). Regression analysis was done to find out the association of risk factors with hip fractures.
Among 60 cases, the fracture was more common in male than female. Fruits, vegetables and legume(165 ±12.6 vs. 205±15.8g/day, P < 0.03) as well as milk products (milk, curd, butter etc) consumption (205+25.8 vs. 318±31.5g/day,P < 0.05) were significantly lower and w-6 rich oils intake was significantly higher among patients with fractures compared to control subjects, respectively. Omega-3 fatty acids intakes were significantly lower among patients with fractures (0.45± 0.74 g/day, P < 0.05). Osteoporosis (92.0%), trivial trauma (92.0%), physical inactivity (80.0%), diabetes mellitus(21.6%) were common among patients with hip fracture. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the intakes of fruit, vegetable and legume ( odds ratio 1.12, confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21, P < 0.05), physical activity( OR 1.36, CI 1.22-1.52, P < 0.05), w-3 fatty acids (OD1.05, 0.92-1.17, P < 0.01) intake were inversely associated with fracture, whereas w-6/w-3 ratio (OD 1.33, CI 1.18-1.47,P < 0.01) interleukin-6, (OD1.11, CI 1.02-1.19, P < 0.01), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(OD,1.09, CI 1.01-1.17, P < 0.01) were positively associated with fracture.
This study showed that increased consumption of fruit, vegetable and legume, milk products and w-3 fatty acid and low w-6/w-3 ratio diet as well as physical activity may be protective against hip joint fractures.