Objective: Although stevia leaf extract is an accepted sugar substitute that can contribute to improved caloric management and weight control, it also may enhance other aspects of human health. The effectiveness and safety of stevia leaf extract in these additional roles was evaluated. Methods: A detailed literature review was conducted and summarized. Results: An extract of the leaf of the herb, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (“stevia”) is a natural, sweet-tasting, noncaloric substance and does not produce unhealthy side effects. In addition, the inclusion of stevia leaf extracts in the diet has been associated with antihyperglycemic, insulinotropic, glucagonostatic, hypotensive, anticariogenic, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and chemopreventative responses. Conclusion: Stevia leaf extracts and their constituent phytonutrients promote caloric balance and can be beneficial components of a healthy dietary lifestyle.