The Open Ornithology Journal




ISSN: 1874-4532 ― Volume 12, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Threats and Vision for the Conservation of Galápagos Birds



Gustavo Jiménez-Uzcátegui1, David Wiedenfeld2, Carlos A. Valle3, 4, Hernán Vargas5, Paolo Piedrahita6, Laia J. Muñoz-Abril4, 7, Juan José Alava8, 9, *
1 Charles Darwin Research Station, Charles Darwin Foundation, Galápagos, Ecuador
2 American Bird Conservancy, PO Box 249, The Plains, Virginia, VA 20198, USA
3 Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Campus Cumbayá Av. Diego de Robles S/N e Interoceánica, Quito, Ecuador
4 Galapagos Science Center (GSC), San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos, Ecuador
5 The Peregrine Fund, 5668 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA
6 Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador
7 Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, Santa Elena, Ecuador
8 Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, Faculty of Science, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
9 Fundación Ecuatoriana para el Estudio de Mamíferos Marinos, Guayaquil, Ecuador

Abstract

Introduction:

Threats that affect the avian diversity on the Galápagos Islands are increasing. We evaluated threats such as climate change and severe weather, human intrusions and disturbance, biological resource use, invasive and other problematic species, genes and diseases, pollution, geological events and loss of genetic diversity in relation with avian species enlisted in both the international and national (Ecuador) IUCN Red List, which can be used as sentinel species of the ecosystem. Here, the status of the threatened species for the next ten years (present time up to 2028), under two scenarios, including the status quo and the avian diversity vision for the species’ conservation, was assessed.

Methods:

The conceptual framework of the assessment was envisioned within the existing knowledge and projections of present and future threats to revisit current conservation efforts. Based on this evaluation, a set of management actions coupled with mitigation strategies to address new anthropogenic threats affecting the long-term survival of species in the face of global and regional environmental changes are recommended. Alternative strategies for species conservation, mainly when declining avian populations are susceptible to demographic bottlenecks or risk of extinction and when natural disasters affect ecosystem stability, are also considered.

Results:

These results should be envisioned as a guide for the evaluation and management of the avian species in the future to be replicated every decade.

Keywords: Conservation, Climate change, Human instructions, Invasive species, Diseases, Pollution, Geological events, Loss genetic diversity, Sentinel species.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 1
Last Page: 15
Publisher Id: TOOENIJ-12-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874453201912010001

Article History:

Received Date: 11/09/2018
Revision Received Date: 4/12/2018
Acceptance Date: 27/12/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/1/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 937
Abstract HTML Views: 1221
PDF Downloads: 286
ePub Downloads: 191
Total Views/Downloads: 2635

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 580
Abstract HTML Views: 704
PDF Downloads: 204
ePub Downloads: 120
Total Views/Downloads: 1608
Geographical View

© 2019 Jiménez-Uzcátegui et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, Faculty of Science, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada; Email: j.alava@oceans.ubc.ca


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open