The Open Orthopaedics Journal

ISSN: 1874-3250 ― Volume 11, 2017

Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain: An Systematic Overview Update as Part of the ICON§ Project

Anita R. Gross*, 1, Faith Kaplan1, Stacey Huang1, Mahweesh Khan1, P. Lina Santaguida2, Lisa C. Carlesso3, Joy C. MacDermid4, David M. Walton5, Justin Kenardy6, Anne Söderlund7, Arianne Verhagen8, Jan Hartvigsen9
1 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada;
2 McMaster University Evidence-Based Practice Centre, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Hamilton, ON, Canada;
3 Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada;
4 School of Rehabilitation Sciences McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario and Clinical Research Lab, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, London, ON, Canada;
5 School of Physical Therapy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada;
6 Centre of National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, QLD, Australia;
7 School of Health, Care and Social Welfare Malardalens University, Vasteras, Sweden;
8 Erasmus Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands;
9 Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark



To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.

Search Strategy:

Computerized databases and grey literature were searched (2006-2012).

Selection Criteria:

Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality-of-life and patient satisfaction were retrieved.

Data Collection & Analysis:

Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias using AMSTAR tool and extracted data. The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel to provide critical review.

Main Results:

We retrieved 30 reviews (5-9 AMSTAR score) reporting on 75 RCTs with the following moderate GRADE evidence. For acute whiplash associated disorder (WAD), an education video in emergency rooms (1RCT, 405participants] favoured pain reduction at long-term follow-up thus helping 1 in 23 people [Standard Mean Difference: -0.44(95%CI: -0.66 to -0.23)). Use of a soft collar (2RCTs, 1278participants) was not beneficial in the long-term. For chronic neck pain, a mind-body intervention (2RCTs, 1 meta-analysis, 191participants) improved short-term pain/function in 1 of 4 or 6 participants. In workers, 2-minutes of daily scapula-thoracic endurance training (1RCT, 127participants) over 10 weeks was beneficial in 1 of 4 participants. A number of psychosocial interventions, workplace interventions, collar use and self-management educational strategies were not beneficial.

Reviewers' Conclusions:

Moderate evidence exists for quantifying beneficial and non-beneficial effects of a limited number of interventions for acute WAD and chronic neck pain. Larger trials with more rigorous controls need to target promising interventions

Keywords: overview, psychological, education, orthotics, ergonomics, prevention, neck pain.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2013
Volume: 7
Issue: Suppl 4
First Page: 530
Last Page: 561
Publisher Id: TOORTHJ-7-530
DOI: 10.2174/1874325001307010530

Article History:

Received Date: 15/2/2013
Revision Received Date: 28/3/2013
Acceptance Date: 28/3/2013
Electronic publication date: 20 /9/2013
Collection year: 2013

© Gross et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the McMaster University, School of Rehabilitation Science, IAHS, 1400 Main Street West, 4th floor, Hamilton, ON, L8S 1C7, Canada; Tel: 905-577-0098; Fax: 905-577-0603; E-mail:§ ICON (International Collaboration on Neck), Canada Expert Panel: Gert Bronfort DC, PhD, Northwestern Health Sciences University, USA; Norm Buckley, MD - Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Linda Carroll, Psychologist, PhD, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Ted Haines, MD, MSc, Occupational Health & Safety, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Ron Kaplan, PhD, C.Psych, Kaplan Psychologists, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Jan Poole, PT, PhD, Hogeschool Utrecht, University of Applied Science, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Duncan Reid PT, PhD, School Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies AUT University, NZ; Grace P.Y. Szeto PT, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong; Marc White MD, PhD, Executive Director, Canadian Institute for the Relief of Pain and Disability, Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2017 Bentham Open