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Oral candidiasis is a significant, frequent and familiar infection. Candida albicans is the most common fungal
pathogen. It presents in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic states and has been able to develop a myriad of powerful
mechanisms that allows for its thriving colonization and subsequent infection of the host under appropriate conditions.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate advances in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the diagnosis and
identification of oral candidiasis and assess diverse novel treatment modalities for oral candidiasis in the clinical setting.
Various cellular and molecular mechanisms have been employed to help elucidate the interactions between Candida
organisms and their environment. Polymerase chain reaction analyses, Candida biofilm communication, and recombinant
antigen techniques have been found to facilitate explanations of the endurance and continued existence of oral candidiasis,
specifically C. albicans. Various modes of treatment, both traditional and innovative, have been utilized to manage oral
candidiasis. These include, but are not limited, to the novel use of mucobuccal adhesives, denture liners, mouth rinse and
toothpaste combinations as well as probiotic cheese.