Taxodium Rich. is a genus of the family Cupressaceae. The trees are especially prized for their rot and termite
resistant wood. Taxodium leaves and cones, which are particularly rich in essential oils were used as folk medicine to treat
skin, gastro-intestinal, respiratory, inflammation, and infections. Preliminary bioactivity assays reported antimicrobial, antitumor,
antitermitic, antispasmodic and bronchodilator activities of the extracts or isolates from Taxodium but further
pharmacological investigations of bioactive compounds are not available. To data, at least 130 compounds have been
identified from extant or fossil Taxodium. Fifty-seven compounds have been isolated primarily from the cones, leaves,
and branches of extant Taxodium, with diterpenoids and flavonoids as the major components. At least three major abietane
diterpenoids (sugiol (1), ferruginol (2), and 6,7-dehydroferruginol (3)) are also identified in the fossil Taxodium by
GC/MS. The diterpenoids may be important marker compounds for understanding the evolution of the genus Taxodium.
However, the taxonomy and evolutionary pattern of Taxodium remains elusive until a full understanding of the chemical
constituents of all Taxodium taxa is determined..