Background: This study compared a group of 47 regular gym users who take androgenic-anabolic steroids (the
AAS group) as part of their recreational sport, with a group of 48 regular gym users who do not use AAS (the Non-AAS
group) on self-reports of Retrospective memory (RM), executive function (EF) and prospective memory (PM), which are
all critical to everyday remembering.
Methods: All participants were tested using an on-line Survey Monkey method. The Prospective and Retrospective
Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) assessed everyday RM and PM deficits and the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ)
assessed self-reported problems in EF. A drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered
Results: After observing no between-group differences on alcohol or mood, omitting anyone who drank excessively or
had drank recently, smoked or reported using any illegal drug, three one-way ANCOVAs (controlling for age) revealed
that the ASS group reported significantly more RM deficits, EF deficits, and PM deficits, when compared with the Non-
Conclusion: It was concluded that AAS use in a recreational sports context is associated with RM, EF and PM deficits,
indicating that AAS use may damage everyday remembering.