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ISSN: 2210-2892 ― Volume 10, 2020

Effect of Different Sound Genres on In Vitro Seed Germination of Grammatophyllum Hybrid and Grammatophyllum Stapeliiflorum Orchids

Noor Anilizawatima Sulong*, Noor Izzah Mohd Khalil, Mohd Ikhwan Dahari, Anis Athirah Zakaria
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kampus Puncak Alam, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia


Auditory stress has been known to affect the development of plants. Recent findings have shown that the stress produced by music induced a positive effect on plants growth. However, different types of music have different kinds of stimulation on plant development. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro seed germination of two Grammatophyllum species when exposed to five different music genres. The Grammatophyllum species used were G. hybrid and G. stapeliiflorum while the music genres were Instrumental, Rock, Hip hop, Yassin (Quranic reciting) and Ballad. Green capsules of Grammatophyllum hybrid and Grammatophyllum stapeliiflorum were obtained from Triang Botanical Valley, Pahang, Malaysia. Each group of seed cultures were exposed to different music genre for 8 hours starting from 9 am until 5 pm, each for a 6 months period. Seed cultures were kept in the dark for the first 3 months. One untreated (no music) group was kept as a control. All cultures were maintained on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2 g/L peptone, 1 g/L activated charcoal and 2.5 g/L gelrite. Observations were recorded every month for the number of shoots emerged and shoot length. Data was analysed by using a one-way ANOVA. At the end of the experiment, it was found that music exposure had a positive effect on the seeds’ germination as compared to the untreated control group. For G. hybrid species, the highest shoots number counted was 19.33±3.79 which was observed on seeds exposed to Yassin. The highest shoot length measured was 2.02±1.10 cm when it was exposed to Rocks music. In contrast, G. stapeliiflorum species showed the highest number of shoots of 12.00±2.64 when exposed to Ballad and the highest shoot length achieved by this species was 0.99±0.38 cm when it was exposed to Instrumental music. Analysis by using Kruskal-Wallis H and one-way ANOVA showed that p < 0.05 for all parameters. The findings showed that different species of orchids need a different type of music to influence the rate of its germination and growth.

Keywords: Grammatophyllum hybrid, grammatophyllum stapeliiflorum, in vitro, music exposure, orchids, seed germination.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 7
First Page: 94
Last Page: 103
Publisher Id: TOPROCJ-7-1-94
DOI: 10.2174/2210289201607010094

Article History:

Received Date: 8/12/2015
Revision Received Date: 10/2/2016
Acceptance Date: 11/2/2016
Electronic publication date: 10/05/2016
Collection year: 2016

© Sulong et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Pharmaco-Toxicology Laboratory 12, UiTM Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; Tel: +60332584766; Fax: +60332584602; E-mail:

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