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ISSN: 2210-2892 ― Volume 10, 2020

Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Colorimetric Analysis for Monitoring the Algal Development on Biocide-Treated Stone

Stéphanie Eyssautier-Chuinea, *, Nathalie Vaillant-Gaveaub, Maxime Gommeauxa, Céline Thomachot-Schneidera, Jessica Pleckc, Gilles Fronteaua
a Groupe d’Étude sur les Géomatériaux et les Environnements naturels, Anthropiques et Archéologiques EA 3795 (GE-GENAA) Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France;
b Unité de Recherche Vignes et Vins de Champagne URVVC EA 4707. Laboratoire de Stress, Défense et Reproduction des Plantes Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France
c Centre de Ressources Technologiques en Chimie (CERTECH), Seneffe, Belgique


The present study used two non destructive technics, chlorophyll fluorescence and colorimetry to assess the Chlorella vulgaris growth on stone surface treated by experimental treatments for preventing biofouling. A protocol for laboratory tests was set up, consisting of inoculating treated slabs stone with a suspension of an algae culture (Chlorella vulgaris), that is a well known monument colonizing organism. The biofouling test was carried out under fluorescent lights for four weeks at room temperature which was 20°C and monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence and colorimetry analysis. These techniques are rapid, non-invasive, and reliable.

Treatments were introduced by mixing a tetraethoxysilane base with different ingredients: chitosan and/or silver nitrate for biocide effect and/or hydrophobic silica for water repellency.

Results revealed four different patterns of algal development. The stones treated with the product containing chitosan and silver nitrate did not show any difference in their fluorescence signal as compared with the untreated stones (control). The stones treated with the product containing only silver nitrate showed biocide effect two weeks after the start of the experiment. The product containing silver nitrate, chitosan and hydrophobic silica at low concentrations completely inhibited algal development in the long term, the similar product with the same compounds at a higher concentration only delayed algal development by 1-2 weeks.

This suggests that low concentrations of the products have a synergistic effect, that is lost if they occur in excess. In the present study, chlorophyll a fluorescence proved to be a valuable tool in detecting damage in the photosynthetic system of organisms and as a useful complement to other conventional measurements such as colorimetry.

Keywords: Algae, biocide, chlorophyll a fluorescence, color, limestone.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 7
Issue: suppl 1: M5
First Page: 55
Last Page: 64
Publisher Id: TOPROCJ-7-2-55
DOI: 10.2174/2210289201607020055

Article History:

Received Date: 15/1/2015
Revision Received Date: 25/5/2015
Acceptance Date: 31/7/2015
Electronic publication date: 08/04/2016
Collection year: 2016

© Eyssautier-Chuine et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Groupe d'Étude sur les Géomatériaux et les Environnements naturels Anthropiques et Archéologiques EA 3795 (GEGENAA) Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France; Tel: +33 326 773 636; Fax: +33 326 773 694; Email:

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