The Open Rehabilitation Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1874-9437 ― Volume 8, 2015

Ligament Injury and Healing: A Review of Current Clinical Diagnostics and Therapeutics


The Open Rehabilitation Journal, 2013, 6: 1-20

R.A. Hauser, E.E. Dolan, H.J. Phillips, A.C. Newlin, R.E. Moore, B.A. Woldin

Caring Medical & Rehabilitation Services, S.C. 715 Lake Street, Ste. 600, Oak Park, IL 60301, USA.

Electronic publication date 23/1/2013
[DOI: 10.2174/1874943701306010001]

CrossRef Citations:
0


Article Metrics:

Geographical View
Total Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 103
PDF Downloads: 20
Total Views/Downloads: 123

Unique Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 70
PDF Downloads: 19
Total Views/Downloads: 89


Abstract:

Ligament injuries are among the most common causes of musculoskeletal joint pain and disability encountered in primary practice today. Ligament injures create disruptions in the balance between joint mobility and joint stability, causing abnormal force transmission through the joint, which results in damage to other structures in and around the joint. The long-term consequence of nonhealed ligament injury is osteoarthritis, the most common joint disorder in the world today.

Ligaments heal through a distinct sequence of cellular events that take place in three consecutive stages: an acute inflammatory phase, a proliferative or regenerative phase, and a tissue remodeling phase. The process can take months to resolve itself, and despite advances in therapeutics, many ligaments do not regain their normal tensile strength.

Various diagnostic procedures have been used to determine and assess ligament injury. Traditionally, MRI and X-rays have been the most utilized techniques; however, because ligaments do not show up clearly with these devices, there have been many false positives and negatives reported due to inconclusive or inaccurate readings. Newer technologies, such as ultrasound and digital motion X-ray, are able to provide a more detailed image of a ligament's structure and function.

Numerous strategies have been employed over the years attempting to improve ligament healing after injury or surgery. One of the most important of these is based on the understanding that monitoring early resumption of activity can stimulate repair and restoration of function and that prolonging rest may actually delay recovery and adversely affect the tissue's response to repair. Likewise, there is a shift away from the use of steroid injections and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications. Although these compounds have been shown effective in decreasing the inflammation and pain of ligament injuries for up to six to eight weeks, their use has been shown to inhibit the histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of ligament healing. For this reason their use is cautioned against in athletes who have ligament injuries. Such products are no longer recommended for chronic soft tissue injuries or for acute ligament injuries, except for the shortest possible time, if at all.

Regenerative medicine techniques, such as prolotherapy, have been shown, in both case series and clinical studies, to resolve ligament injuries of the spine and peripheral joints. More research and additional studies are needed to better assess ligament injuries and healing properties.


Download PDF

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Advertisements


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.com
Copyright © 2018 Bentham Open