1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, 10052, Baghdad, Iraq
2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Penang, Malaysia
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are both chronic conditions and the relationship between them is complex.
The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of Low Bone Mineral density (LBMD, i.e., osteopenia and osteoporosis), as well as, the difference and associations between Quantitative Ultrasound Scan (QUS) parameters with socio-demographic data and clinical related data among T2DM in Penang, Malaysia.
An observational, cross-sectional study with a convenient sample of 450 T2DM patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang (HPP) to measure Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at the heel bone using QUS. In addition, a self-reported structured questionnaire about the socio-demographic data and osteoporosis risk factors were collected. Moreover, the study included the retrospective collection of clinical data from patients’ medical records.
The mean value of T-score for normal BMD, osteopenic and osteoporotic patients’ were (-0.41±0.44), (-1.65±0.39) and (-2.76±0.27), respectively. According to QUS measurements, more than three quarters of T2DM patients (82%) were at high risk of abnormal BMD. The results showed that QUS scores were significantly associated with age, gender, menopausal duration, educational level and diabetic related data. Moreover, the QUS parameters and T-scores demonstrated significant negative correlation with age, menopausal duration, diabetic duration and glycaemic control, as well as, a positive correlation with body mass index and waist to hip ratio. The current study revealed that none of the cardiovascular disease risk factors appear to influence the prevalence of low BMD among T2DM Malaysian patients.
The study findings revealed that the assessment of T2DM patients’ bone health and related factor are essential and future educational programs are crucial to improve osteoporosis management.
Keywords: Diabetes, Malaysia, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Prevalence, Quantitative ultrasound.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, 10052, Baghdad, Iraq; Tel: 00964-07500271748; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org