The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal




ISSN: 1874-3064 ― Volume 13, 2019

Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) Lung Disease in Two Inner City Community Hospitals: Recognition, Prevalence, Co-Infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) and Pulmonary Function (PF) Improvements After Treatment



Zinobia Khan*, Albert Miller, Moses Bachan, Joseph Donath
CARITAS Health Care Inc, Mary Immaculate Hospital-Pulmonary Division, 152-11 89th Ave, Jamaica, New York 11432, USA

Abstract

Introduction:

The purpose of this study was to separate MAC lung disease from colonization and to define indications for treatment.

Materials and Methodology:

Over 4 years, we evaluated patients who had positive MAC cultures, MAC infection and coinfection with MTB. In the first study, 42 immunocompetent patients with sputum or BAL culture positive only for MAC during a single year (2004) were reviewed. On clinical and radiographic review, they were classified as disease related to MAC, likely related to MAC or unrelated to MAC. In the second study, we reviewed all immunocompetent patients, during two years (2004-2005), whose respiratory secretions cultured both MTB and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). In the last study, we evaluated pulmonary function (PF) in patients with MAC infection before and after therapy (2006- 2007). PF was evaluated in patients following ATS guidelines.

Results:

Lung disease was related/likely related to MAC in 21 patients (50%) and not related in 21 (50%). In patients with MAC-related lung disease, the primary physician did not consider the diagnosis except when that physician was a pulmonologist. Half of those with MAC-related lung disease were smokers, white and US-born. There were 12 immunocompetent patients with MTB and NTM cultures. Eleven were non-white and all were foreign-born. Presentation and clinical course were consistent with MTB. All 8 patients with abnormal PF improved.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of MAC lung infection in two inner city hospitals was four times higher than that of TB. The indication for treatment of MAC infection should also rely heavily on clinical and radiological evidence when there is only one positive sputum culture. The diagnosis was considered only when the admitting physician was a pulmonologist. Most patients with combined infection were clinically consistent with MTB and responded to anti MTB treatment alone. Treatment with anti-MAC therapy improved PF in those patients whose PF was abnormal to begin with.

Keywords: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), Non-Tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), immunocompetent, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchiectasis, cavitation, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, pulmonary function (PF)..


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2010
Volume: 4
First Page: 76
Last Page: 81
Publisher Id: TORMJ-4-76
DOI: 10.2174/1874306401004010076

Article History:

Received Date: 25/2/2010
Revision Received Date: 17/4/2010
Acceptance Date: 6/7/2010
Electronic publication date: 8/08/2010
Collection year: 2010

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 919
Abstract HTML Views: 1158
PDF Downloads: 233
Total Views/Downloads: 2310

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 460
Abstract HTML Views: 709
PDF Downloads: 167
Total Views/Downloads: 1336
Geographical View

© Khan et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 W. Kingsbridge Road, Bronx, New York, NY 10468, USA; Tel: (718) 496-9531, (718) 496-9854; Fax: 718-741-4623; E-mail: zkhan36@aol.com


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open