The Open Sports Medicine Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1874-3870 ― Volume 9, 2015

Psychological and Physiological Changes of Anxiety Prior a Swimming Competition


The Open Sports Medicine Journal, 2008, 2: 41-46

Dimitrios Loupos, Moschopoulou Fotini, Vassilis Barkoukis, Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis, George Grouios, Ioannis Taitzoglou

the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, T. Oikonomidi 50, Kalamaria 55131, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Electronic publication date //2008
[DOI: 10.2174/1874387000802010041]




Abstract:

Objectives:

Self-report measures of anxiety have dominated the research on anxiety-performance relationship. However, a combination of psychological and physiological indices is thought to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the experience of this psychological state. The purpose of the current study was twofold: First, to examine the relationship among psychological and physiological measures of state anxiety, and secondary, to examine the way and extent that different estimates of anxiety can predict swimming performance, and related psychological variables such as perceived importance of competition and intention to apply effort.

Methods:

The study’s sample consisted of 45 adolescent swimmers with a mean age of 13.8 years (SD = 2.31) participating in the Winter Swimming Championship of Northern Greece. CSAI-2 was used to measure state anxiety, while systolic- diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate, salivary cortisol, and plasma t-PA were selected as the physiological indices. Furthermore, perceived importance of competition and intention to apply effort were used as psychological variables associated with swimming performance. A two-way prospective design was used. The first measurement took place one week prior the competition, in a resting day, and the second one the day of the competition.

Results:

The results indicated that the different anxiety indices were not correlated to each other. Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor of swimming performance (R2 = .16 F(1,43) = 8.48, p < .01) but not linked to psychological variables such as perceived importance of competition and intention to apply effort.

Conclusion:

The findings of the present study support the multidimensional estimation of anxiety, in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the anxiety-performance relationship.


Download PDF

Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2021 Bentham Open