The Open Sports Sciences Journal




ISSN: 1875-399X ― Volume 12, 2019

On Validation of a Popular Sport Diving Decompression Model


The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2009, 2: 76-93

B.R. Wienke

Applied And Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, N.M. 87545, USA.

Electronic publication date 4/9/2009
[DOI: 10.2174/1875399X00902010076]

CrossRef Citations:
0


Article Metrics:

Geographical View
Total Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 632
PDF Downloads: 194
Total Views/Downloads: 1010

Unique Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 416
PDF Downloads: 152
Total Views/Downloads: 697


Abstract:

SpLinking deep stop model and data, we detail the LANL reduced gradient bubble model (RGBM), dynamical principles, and correlation with the LANL Data Bank. Table, profile, and meter risks are obtained from likelihood analysis, and pertinent applications include nonstop air diving, the Bennett and Maronni 2.5 minute recreational deep stop, C & C Team 450/20 multiple RB dive sequence at 1.4 atm, NEDU deep stop tests, and French Navy deep stop profiles. The algorithm enjoys extensive and utilitarian application in mixed gas diving, both in recreational and technical sectors, and forms the bases for released tables, software, and decompression meters used by scientific, commercial, and research divers. The LANL Data Bank is described, and the methods used to deduce risk are detailed. Risk functions for dissolved gas and bubbles are summarized. Parameters that can be used to estimate profile risk are tallied. To fit data, a modified Levenberg-Marquardt routine is employed. The LANL Data Bank presently contains 2879 profiles with 20 cases of DCS across nitrox, trimix, and heliox deep and decompression diving. This work establishes needed correlation between global mixed gas diving, specific bubble model, and deep stop data. The objective is operational diving, not clinical science. The fit of bubble model to deep stop data is chi squared significant to 93%, using the logarithmic likelihood ratio of null set (actual set) to fit set. The RGBM model is thus validated within the LANL Data Bank. Extensive and safe utilization of the model as reflected in user statistics for tables, meters, and software also points to real world validation, that is, one without noted nor reported DCS spikes among RGBM divers. Collecting real world diving data is a global alternative to differential wet and dry testing, a very precise but limited statistical procedure. The approach here for technical, mixed gas, and serious decompression diving parallels the Project Dive Exploration (PDE) effort at DAN for recreational air and nitrox diving, but does not overlap quite obviously. The issue of deep stops versus shallow stops in diving is a hotly debated topic today, and this study reaffirms the efficacy of deep stops, especially as they link naturally to the LANL dual phase bubble model and data. The operational issue of deep stops and staging is one of timing, with questions of time and depth at all stops only addressed within consistent model and ranging data frameworks.


Download PDF

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open