Our group analyzed species of Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (An. darlingi, An. marajoara, An.
oswaldoi, An. benarrochi, An. triannulatus and An. rangeli) and a single species of the subgenus Anopheles (An.
mattogrossensis), originating in the Amazon, based on the mitochondrial DNA control region. The fragment had 381 pb
and the nucleotide composition in A+T ranged from 85.8 to 89.5%. DNA polymorphism analysis of the species detected
15 haplotypes, with the presence of 81 polymorphic loci, 95 mutations, haplotypic divergence of 0.879, nucleotide
diversity of 0.06507, nucleotide differences pair the pair mean of 23.1749, and the observed and expected variances of
113.840 and 8.33, respectively. The genetic distance among the Anopheles species varied from 0.06 to 1.37%. An.
oswaldoi and An. rangeli were the most similar, with nucleotide divergence of 0.17%. The An. benarrochi populations of
Ji-Parana and Bolivia showed nucleotide divergence of 0.06%. An. darlingi, An. marajoara and An. triannulatus
presented nucleotide divergences of 0.35% between An. triannulatus and An. darlingiand of 0.47% between An. darlingi
and An. marajoara. This data showed ample interspecific nucleotide variation, though with low nucleotide divergence.
The cladogram separated the species of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus and those of the subgenera Cellia and Anopheles,
with 98% bootstrap. The region control data did not show strong phylogenetic support, as indicated by the
transition/transversion mean rate (0.4643), which is necessary for increasing fragment size and using other more
conservative genes for greater inference concerning the phylogeny of the Anopheles species of the subgenus