The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal




ISSN: 1874-303X ― Volume 12, 2019
CASE REPORT

Community Acquired Acute Kidney Injury from Edible Agents: Report from a Developing Country, Bangladesh



Tabassum Samad*, Wasim M. Mohosin ul Haque, Muhammad A. Rahim, Sarwar Iqbal, Palash Mitra
Department of Nephrology, BIRDEM General Hospital, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Abstract

Toxin is a common cause of community acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) which includes environmental toxins like plant toxins as well as various drugs and chemicals which are usually ingested for medicinal as well as recreational purposes.

Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit/ Kamranga) and Avorrhoa bilimbi are two such commonly used traditional remedies. They belong to family Oxalidaecae and contain high-levels of oxalic acid. AKI may occur after consuming concentrated juice due to deposition of oxalate crystals in the renal tubules.

Here we present two patients who developed AKI after ingestion of freshly made juice from A. bilimbi and star fruit. Both patients were diabetic and the juice was ingested on empty stomach with the belief of improving glycemic status. Initial presentation was GI upset in both scenarios. Patient with A. bilimbi toxicity had diabetic nephropathy and required hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed deposition of polarizable oxalate crystals in the patient who consumed A. bilimbi and acute tubular necrosis in the patient with star fruit toxicity. All cases regained normal renal function within three months.

We also present a patient who ingested raw fish gallbladder as a remedy for asthma. The patient presented with AKI within five days of ingestion and required hemodialysis. His highest serum creatinine was 10.4mg/dl and fell to 1.7 mg/dl after four weeks. Cyprinol and related compounds in fish gallbladder are thought to be the cause of acute tubular necrosis in such cases.

The fourth patient developed AKI with rhabdomyolysis after consuming a locally made energy drink. He also required dialysis and serum creatinine gradually improved from 7.2mg/dl to 1.4mg/dl at discharge. The possibility of toxicity of caffeine, adulteration with other chemicals or ascorbic acid toxicity causing oxalate nephropathy could not be excluded.

All four patients developed AKI caused after ingesting easily available products and are presented here for public awareness. We believe proper knowledge and education can reduce toxin induced AKI in our society.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Community acquired AKI, Star fruit, Averrhoa bilimbi, Energy drink, Fish gallbladder poisoning, Bangladesh.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 10
First Page: 20
Last Page: 28
Publisher Id: TOUNJ-10-20
DOI: 10.2174/1874303X01710010020

Article History:

Received Date: 04/05/2016
Revision Received Date: 09/09/2016
Acceptance Date: 10/10/2016
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2017
Collection year: 2017

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1737
Abstract HTML Views: 529
PDF Downloads: 296
ePub Downloads: 215
Total Views/Downloads: 2777

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 685
Abstract HTML Views: 320
PDF Downloads: 200
ePub Downloads: 153
Total Views/Downloads: 1358
Geographical View

© 2017 Samad et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Nephrology, BIRDEM General Hospital, 122,Kazi Nazul Islam venue, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh; Tel: +8801711282434; E-mails: titlysamad@gmail.com, samadtabassum@yahoo.com


Society Accreditations


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Advertisements


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open