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The measles virus has a single serotype although 23 genotypes have been identified by analysis of the sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes. Infection by any genotype induces life-long immunity against all genotypes. No genotype has been associated with greater virulence or persistence. Some genotypes may be associated with specific geographic regions, although the majority cause outbreaks and sporadic cases in any country. Therefore, knowledge of the circulation of genotypes in the different World Health Organization Regions is important to enable not only the follow-up of each case of measles but also the evaluation of surveillance systems designed to achieve the elimination of measles. The presence of various genotypes in the same country in a short period of time is one of the indicators of elimination defined by the World Health Organization. Therefore, detailed study and characterization of each case of measles found in a region, the search for its origin and the evolution of its variability over time is fundamental for the elimination plans established in all WHO Regions. This work reviews which genotypes have been detected, especially in Spain.